6th Generation VFR Battery---Lithium Ion feedback? in Sixth Generation VFR's Posted January 17 I've been using Lithium Iron batteries since 2009... The first was Josh Kaufman's Speed Cell... On the question of longevity my Speed Cell Lithium Iron worked flawlessly in my RC45 for over 4 years despite the fact it was discharged down to 3.5 volts in the first 2 years... It was still serviceable 2015 when I sold my Speed Cell to Bob for his VFR 800 because I wanted a dedicated balance charging system Shoria offers for my RC45... Back in 2009 I went for a new Lithium Iron batteries because not only are they 6 pounds 10 ounces lighter than the stock YUASA they do not require trickle charging... I have had mine drop to 3.4 volts and charge back up without the problems associated with maintenance free batteries... The days of the old heavy lead acid battery are number... smart money is on the new light weight Lithium Iron battery like Shorai... not only is it 5lbs lighter but doesn't require trickle charging and will not sulfate... I also recommend Shorai's balance charger because it as two modes one for storage and one for charging... http://www.shoraipower.com Quote Shorai Starter batteries of any type contain a large amount of energy. During a short circuit, ALL that energy is released in a matter of seconds, creating an extremely hot arc welder, possibly causing fire or explosion. You MUST be very careful at all times to avoid short circuit of the positive and negative terminals. Do NOT wear jewelry on wrist or neck while handling batteries. INSURE that when installed the positive and negative terminals are properly covered and insulated from the vehicle. Do NOT use carbon fiber battery hold down units, as carbon is an electrical conductor. When replacing a battery, its important to verify that your charging system is working properly and the output voltage is within the recommended range of 13.6-14.4v. At no time should the charging system output be above 15.2v or it can damage the battery. All that is required by Shorai when up grading from stock to Li Ion battery is to verify that your charging system is working properly and the output voltage is within the recommended range of 13.6-14.4v. At no time should the charging system output be above 15.2v or it can damage the old lead or the new Li Ion battery. Battery Basics Or why do lithium-ion batteries cost so much? Kevin Cameron By Kevin Cameron September 3, 2014 The term “lithium-ion battery” includes a wide variety of possible electrode chemistries and electrolytes, and as these types of batteries proliferate, we decided it was time to provide a basic primer on them. One of the most important facts is that lithium reacts vigorously with water or water vapor. Therefore, lithium-ion batteries must be sealed to exclude the atmosphere, and the electrolyte used cannot contain water. While most Li-ion batteries employ graphite anodes, cathode types and applications are numerous, as follows: Lithium cobalt oxide: achieves high energy density but current is somewhat limited by electrode resistance and the heat generation that it produces. Lithium manganese oxide: good for electric tools requiring high current. Less energy density than cobalt oxide. Lithium iron phosphate: lower energy density but long life, inherent thermal safety. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide: good for low-drain medical equipment. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide: able to tolerate many charge-discharge cycles; might be useful for electrical grid storage (storing solar power by day for discharge at night). In all cases, the charging process stores lithium ions in the negative electrode, or anode. Discharge moves lithium ions from anode to cathode. Think of electrode structure as analogous to the familiar problem of airliner seating: To shorten loading/unloading time at airports, more aisles are essential, but providing such aisles means the space they occupy cannot be filled by more paying passengers. Cathodes are made with structures that provide large surface area (Li-cobalt oxide is a layered structure, but lithium manganese oxide is a triangulated “spinel”). So, in general, having maximum energy storage capacity makes it more difficult to achieve rapid charge/discharge. Electrode resistance—chiefly the anode—generates heat. It was natural for users seeking maximum performance (laptop and mobile-phone makers, Boeing, and others for aircraft use) to be attracted to lithium cobalt oxide, but a number of well-publicized laptop, handheld device, and other fires resulted, including one in a Cessna CJ4 business jet, which caused the FAA to stipulate that this model’s Li-ion main battery be replaced by either lead-acid or nickel-metal hydride batteries. Boeing was allowed to put Li-cobalt oxide aboard its new 787 Dreamliner because four levels of security were provided. As we now know, even that did not prevent “overheating.” Fire results when a battery enters “thermal runaway,” develops internal current, and becomes hot enough to vaporize its electrolyte, generating internal pressure that bursts the battery’s containment. The combination of the electrolyte—an organic solvent such as ethylene carbonate—high temperature, and atmospheric oxygen generates an intense fire. Lithium plus atmospheric water vapor reacts to lithium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas. Big bangs! Industry’s response has taken several forms: to shift to inherently safer electrode chemistries such as Li-iron phosphate; to protect high-performance batteries with charge/discharge controls and temperature sensing circuitry; to add fire-retardant substances to battery electrolyte. In the case of the Shorai motorcycle battery, it employs the safe lithium iron phosphate cathode chemistry. Even though this cathode choice reduces energy storage in comparison with a Li-cobalt oxide chemistry, it still displays much more energy storage than traditional lead-acid. Every week one can read of “breakthrough” developments in Li-ion battery technology, most of them taking the form of ways to create electrodes with extremely large surface area and an open structure allowing rapid ion movement. No large company can afford to bet the farm on new developments that have not been thoroughly explored, so it can be years before such refinements make their way to market.